Jump to content
Sign in to follow this  
Lindsay

Schizoaffective Disorder

Recommended Posts

Schizoaffective disorder is a chronic mental health condition characterized primarily by symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations or delusions, and symptoms of a mood disorder, such as mania and depression.

Reading NAMI's content on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder will offer many overlapping resources for schizoaffective disorder. Because schizoaffective disorder is less well-studied than the other two conditions, many interventions are borrowed from their treatment approaches.

Many people with schizoaffective disorder are often incorrectly diagnosed at first with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia because it shares symptoms of multiple mental health conditions.

Schizoaffective disorder is seen in about 0.3% of the population. Men and women experience schizoaffective disorder at the same rate, but men often develop the illness at an earlier age. Schizoaffective disorder can be managed effectively with medication and therapy. Co-occurring substance use disorders are a serious risk and require integrated treatment.

Symptoms

The symptoms of schizoaffective disorder can be severe and need to be monitored closely. Depending on the type of mood disorder diagnosed, depression or bipolar disorder, people will experience different symptoms:

  • Hallucinations, which are seeing or hearing things that aren’t there.
  • Delusions, which are false, fixed beliefs that are held regardless of contradictory evidence.
  • Disorganized thinking. A person may switch very quickly from one topic to another or provide answers that are completely unrelated.
  • Depressed mood. If a person has been diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder depressive type they will experience feelings of sadness, emptiness, feelings of worthlessness or other symptoms of depression.
  • Manic behavior. If a person has been diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder: bipolar type they will experience feelings of euphoria, racing thoughts, increased risky behavior and other symptoms of mania.

 

Causes

The exact cause of schizoaffective disorder is unknown. A combination of causes may contribute to the development of schizoaffective disorder.

  • Genetics. Schizoaffective disorder tends to run in families. This does not mean that if a relative has an illness, you will absolutely get it. But it does mean that there is a greater chance of you developing the illness.
  • Brain chemistry and structure. Brain function and structure may be different in ways that science is only beginning to understand. Brain scans are helping to advance research in this area.
  • Stress. Stressful events such as a death in the family, end of a marriage or loss of a job can trigger symptoms or an onset of the illness.
  • Drug use. Psychoactive drugs such as LSD have been linked to the development of schizoaffective disorder.

Diagnosis

Schizoaffective disorder can be difficult to diagnose because it has symptoms of both schizophrenia and either depression or bipolar disorder. There are two major types of schizoaffective disorder: bipolar type and depressive type. To be diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder a person must have the following symptoms.

  • A period during which there is a major mood disorder, either depression or mania, that occurs at the same time that symptoms of schizophrenia are present.
  • Delusions or hallucinations for two or more weeks in the absence of a major mood episode.
  • Symptoms that meet criteria for a major mood episode are present for the majority of the total duration of the illness.
  • The abuse of drugs or a medication are not responsible for the symptoms.

Treatment

Schizoaffective disorder is treated and managed in several ways:

  • Medications, including mood stabilizers, antipsychotic medications and antidepressants
  • Psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or family-focused therapy
  • Self-management strategies and education

 

Treatment

Schizoaffective disorder is treated and managed in several ways:

  • Medications, including mood stabilizers, antipsychotic medications and antidepressants
  • Psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or family-focused therapy
  • Self-management strategies and education

Related Conditions

A person with schizoaffective disorder may have additional illnesses:

  • Anxiety disorders
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Substance abuse

- See more at: https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions/Schizoaffective-Disorder#sthash.fmRMenHS.dpuf

 

 

  • Hallucinations, which are seeing or hearing things that aren’t there.
  • Delusions, which are false, fixed beliefs that are held regardless of contradictory evidence.
  • Disorganized thinking. A person may switch very quickly from one topic to another or provide answers that are completely unrelated.
  • Depressed mood. If a person has been diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder depressive type they will experience feelings of sadness, emptiness, feelings of worthlessness or other symptoms of depression.
  • Manic behavior. If a person has been diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder: bipolar type they will experience feelings of euphoria, racing thoughts, increased risky behavior and other symptoms of mania.

 

- See more at: https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions/Schizoaffective-Disorder#sthash.fmRMenHS.dpuf
Edited by Lindsay

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

WOW very informative.

I've had many diagnoses over the years, and I don't think doctors really know what I have. but they guess.

Does anyone know what bipolar 2 with psychotic features means? at one time, I was diagnosed with that. I've also in the past been diagnosed with DID, GAD, PTSD, and even at first, ocd (but that was because I self-injured, and I haven't done that in a year now).

My counselor says she thinks I either have major depressive disorder, or schizoaffective bipolar type. We went over the criteria in the DSM 4 book that she has. But she made it very clear that i'm not schizophrenic, and I agree. But I also do not think I have bipolar of any sort. I just don't have mood swings. I stay depressed. When I do feel a split second of joy, I know it won't last.

In another thread I made a huge post explaining it all. About the psychosis, voices, shadow people, (who throw their voices when they're not whispering in my ears or yelling, and like I said in the other post, soldiers use the cloak of invisibility and not just harass me when I take my dog on the porch, hiding in the bushes, but they get in the house, and become the shadow people. One particular shadow man haunts me and talks with me a lot. Sometimes he makes my family members to wake me up at night just to argue with me over stupid things, but when I hear my own speech, they disappear, and are not in my room anymore.

Once the family came over and I cooked at my apartment. But once it was done, they weren't there, they disappeared.

I have a lot to say, but I need to go now. my back is hurting, and I've had spine surgery. I need to lie down.

Thanks for reading,
Jamark

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 11/10/2018 at 1:49 AM, Jamark8 said:

WOW very informative.

I've had many diagnoses over the years, and I don't think doctors really know what I have. but they guess.

Does anyone know what bipolar 2 with psychotic features means? at one time, I was diagnosed with that. I've also in the past been diagnosed with DID, GAD, PTSD, and even at first, ocd (but that was because I self-injured, and I haven't done that in a year now).

My counselor says she thinks I either have major depressive disorder, or schizoaffective bipolar type. We went over the criteria in the DSM 4 book that she has. But she made it very clear that i'm not schizophrenic, and I agree. But I also do not think I have bipolar of any sort. I just don't have mood swings. I stay depressed. When I do feel a split second of joy, I know it won't last.

In another thread I made a huge post explaining it all. About the psychosis, voices, shadow people, (who throw their voices when they're not whispering in my ears or yelling, and like I said in the other post, soldiers use the cloak of invisibility and not just harass me when I take my dog on the porch, hiding in the bushes, but they get in the house, and become the shadow people. One particular shadow man haunts me and talks with me a lot. Sometimes he makes my family members to wake me up at night just to argue with me over stupid things, but when I hear my own speech, they disappear, and are not in my room anymore.

Once the family came over and I cooked at my apartment. But once it was done, they weren't there, they disappeared.

I have a lot to say, but I need to go now. my back is hurting, and I've had spine surgery. I need to lie down.

Thanks for reading,
Jamark

Bipolar II with psychotic features most often means that you can have psychotic episodes with your depressed or hypomanic/manic episodes. The reason it usually only happens during depressive episodes in bipolar II patients is because it's very rare for the lower levels of mania to be able to cause psychosis. These can mean all the usual things hallucinations, delusions, dissociative episodes. But caused by your bipolar disorder instead of a separate disorder on it's own. Hope this helps.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
2 hours ago, JudeAllen1803 said:

Bipolar II with psychotic features most often means that you can have psychotic episodes with your depressed or hypomanic/manic episodes. The reason it usually only happens during depressive episodes in bipolar II patients is because it's very rare for the lower levels of mania to be able to cause psychosis. These can mean all the usual things hallucinations, delusions, dissociative episodes. But caused by your bipolar disorder instead of a separate disorder on it's own. Hope this helps.

Ahh okay. I had read the definition of it but just couldn't grasp it in my mind. So during the manic or depressed episode, the psychosis happens? The psychosis I experience does not happen when I'm depressed alone. It happens when I'm not depressed, and I don't think I've ever been manic before.

During a Spiritual Awakening I had earlier this year, once I came out of it, I realized I had had a psychotic episode for about 3 days straight. I had not been depressed, nor manic. But I did think that I was being hypnotized by a girl in a mirror on TV. That's how it started. There was a voice from the TV talking directly to me about a Near Death Experience, and I knew it was talking to me because it said things that only I know about myself. No one else knew/knows those things.

The voice I thought was my brother in my mind had told me to pack my bags and go outside once my mom fell asleep. I began to do it, but decided to stay in because I'm scared of the dark. The voice that sounded like my brother made fun of me for being scared. There were several other things that I experienced that I remember during those 3 days. Some of it was scary, some of it was exciting, some of it was like a learning experience. I didn't sleep the first night. But I got sleep the next day. I also remember hearing Carnival music from my backyard, and while lying in bed trying to get some sleep (that I missed that previous night), the Carnival music was playing and I could hear children laughing and playing too. I heard elephants and lions. That was only when I was lying on my left side. When I turned on my right side, the Carnival music stopped. And when I closed my eyes, I could smell dirt and I knew I was in the middle east, but it was back many thousands of years ago. I must have time travelled, then.

My last Awakening was in 2012. Similar things happened, but back then it lasted much longer. I remember everything was talking to me. Many things were too coincidental to be a coincidence (synchronicity). I remember buying about 15 different books because the title or subject Spoke to me.

For a long time, I had no idea that Bipolar disorder people could experience psychosis at the same time. I thought it was just Bipolar or Psychosis, not both. So when once I was diagnosed with it by a long lost doctor, I didn't understand it at all. Like I said too, when I looked it up, I couldn't understand what it meant. They didn't explain it well enough for me to understand I guess.

Amidst all the diagnoses I've had the past 20 years, I just always tell people that I have Depression and Psychosis. I still do not agree with the doctor that says I have Bipolar. I just don't think I do.

The two Awakenings were just the more stronger, strange experiences I've had that I now believe were Psychosis. However, daily I see the Shadow and Ghost people, the walls moan and there's something tapping on my wall at noon everyday. I don't know if this stuff is Psychosis or if it's real. I will get it on camera one day. Then I'll know when I show other people. If they see it, hear it, smell it, then it's not MY Psychosis.

One more thing. There was a time travelling ghost that has caused trouble in my room before. I believe it's either my past or future self. But then again, it could be my grandmother, because I seen her in mom's room before. The other day, my pen was levitating and when I saw it out the corner of my eye, moving in mid air, I turned my head and it fell on my bed (I was sitting on my bed, on laptop). It also grunts in my ear and once poured water on my hand. It also left invisible ectoplasm in the floor and I thought it was dog poo. I went to clean it up and there was nothing there.

When I get that on camera, I'll know if it's real or not; if it's a haunting or psychosis. Until then, I'll still call it a ghost.

Sorry about that. I got carried away, I think I got off topic. Forgive me.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
3 hours ago, Jamark8 said:

Ahh okay. I had read the definition of it but just couldn't grasp it in my mind. So during the manic or depressed episode, the psychosis happens? The psychosis I experience does not happen when I'm depressed alone. It happens when I'm not depressed, and I don't think I've ever been manic before.

During a Spiritual Awakening I had earlier this year, once I came out of it, I realized I had had a psychotic episode for about 3 days straight. I had not been depressed, nor manic. But I did think that I was being hypnotized by a girl in a mirror on TV. That's how it started. There was a voice from the TV talking directly to me about a Near Death Experience, and I knew it was talking to me because it said things that only I know about myself. No one else knew/knows those things.

The voice I thought was my brother in my mind had told me to pack my bags and go outside once my mom fell asleep. I began to do it, but decided to stay in because I'm scared of the dark. The voice that sounded like my brother made fun of me for being scared. There were several other things that I experienced that I remember during those 3 days. Some of it was scary, some of it was exciting, some of it was like a learning experience. I didn't sleep the first night. But I got sleep the next day. I also remember hearing Carnival music from my backyard, and while lying in bed trying to get some sleep (that I missed that previous night), the Carnival music was playing and I could hear children laughing and playing too. I heard elephants and lions. That was only when I was lying on my left side. When I turned on my right side, the Carnival music stopped. And when I closed my eyes, I could smell dirt and I knew I was in the middle east, but it was back many thousands of years ago. I must have time travelled, then.

My last Awakening was in 2012. Similar things happened, but back then it lasted much longer. I remember everything was talking to me. Many things were too coincidental to be a coincidence (synchronicity). I remember buying about 15 different books because the title or subject Spoke to me.

For a long time, I had no idea that Bipolar disorder people could experience psychosis at the same time. I thought it was just Bipolar or Psychosis, not both. So when once I was diagnosed with it by a long lost doctor, I didn't understand it at all. Like I said too, when I looked it up, I couldn't understand what it meant. They didn't explain it well enough for me to understand I guess.

Amidst all the diagnoses I've had the past 20 years, I just always tell people that I have Depression and Psychosis. I still do not agree with the doctor that says I have Bipolar. I just don't think I do.

The two Awakenings were just the more stronger, strange experiences I've had that I now believe were Psychosis. However, daily I see the Shadow and Ghost people, the walls moan and there's something tapping on my wall at noon everyday. I don't know if this stuff is Psychosis or if it's real. I will get it on camera one day. Then I'll know when I show other people. If they see it, hear it, smell it, then it's not MY Psychosis.

One more thing. There was a time travelling ghost that has caused trouble in my room before. I believe it's either my past or future self. But then again, it could be my grandmother, because I seen her in mom's room before. The other day, my pen was levitating and when I saw it out the corner of my eye, moving in mid air, I turned my head and it fell on my bed (I was sitting on my bed, on laptop). It also grunts in my ear and once poured water on my hand. It also left invisible ectoplasm in the floor and I thought it was dog poo. I went to clean it up and there was nothing there.

When I get that on camera, I'll know if it's real or not; if it's a haunting or psychosis. Until then, I'll still call it a ghost.

Sorry about that. I got carried away, I think I got off topic. Forgive me.

You may want to talk to a doctor about it then and tell them what you told me. It could be another disorder that just happens to sometimes interact with your depression. As a person who also has psychosis, I know what you mean, if I'm seeing something and I try to take a picture of it it won't be in the camera, and if I'm hearing stuff (outside of my head, I still can't work around that) and I try to record it, it won't show up on the recording. (At least that's my experience) 

The reason I'm specifically concerned for your symptoms is because it is quite similar to the symptoms of a friend of mine, she experiences paranoid schizophrenia, and her psychosis is often quite similar and sometimes worse than what I've heard from you. And I totally understand and have been through quite similar things with stuff on the tv effecting me whether its hypnotism, paranoia that it's real and so on, in the medical field it's the part of psychosis called delusions, though we believe them and they can affect us in a very real way they are referred to as 'false' beliefs. I haven't spoken to my psychiatrist about them yet because I didn't want to admit I had them to myself and when it's so real to you it can be quite hard to realize it isn't to others or isn't normal. Hope this helps.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On ‎12‎/‎17‎/‎2018 at 5:09 PM, JudeAllen1803 said:

You may want to talk to a doctor about it then and tell them what you told me. It could be another disorder that just happens to sometimes interact with your depression. As a person who also has psychosis, I know what you mean, if I'm seeing something and I try to take a picture of it it won't be in the camera, and if I'm hearing stuff (outside of my head, I still can't work around that) and I try to record it, it won't show up on the recording. (At least that's my experience) 

The reason I'm specifically concerned for your symptoms is because it is quite similar to the symptoms of a friend of mine, she experiences paranoid schizophrenia, and her psychosis is often quite similar and sometimes worse than what I've heard from you. And I totally understand and have been through quite similar things with stuff on the tv effecting me whether its hypnotism, paranoia that it's real and so on, in the medical field it's the part of psychosis called delusions, though we believe them and they can affect us in a very real way they are referred to as 'false' beliefs. I haven't spoken to my psychiatrist about them yet because I didn't want to admit I had them to myself and when it's so real to you it can be quite hard to realize it isn't to others or isn't normal. Hope this helps.

Ahh! I may want to print this out then, so I can have all the details at hand. Most the time I go in there and forget what I wanted to talk about with him because the wait is usually 3-4 hours. Outrageous. He's just took on too many patients.

I had one doctor, Zussman, who tried to describe what I had, and did mention schizophrenia, but didn't say what type or anything. I am guessing there's more than one type because I've heard people refer to them differently. When I try to read about them, though sometimes, I can't grasp the point. I read the words but the understanding of it just don't happen in my mind. I had heard of delusions before. But I didn't know it was a part of psychosis.

My counselor who I've had for 20 years, all along now, has beat it into my head that I'm not schizophrenic in any way shape or form, and compares me to some other "schizophrenics" that she knows, of whom when she described what its' like for them, theirs sounds more like taking bad drugs and 'trippin' or something like that. But oh... she puts me "in my place" when I even say the word. Obviously mental health "professionals" in Kentucky need to go back to school. I was cheated out of taking a sincere, REAL psychiatric evaluation. The nurses and "doctors" and counselors up in the psych hospital told me that when I was to take the huge questionnaire, to ONLY FILL OUT HALF THE PAGE, AND LEAVE THE REST BLANK. I thought that was strange, but I did as I was told. My results came out, making me look like a total fake and "wannabe".

Something like DID, with another disorder that has nothing to do with mental health but for my privacy I won't list it, and "BPD tendencies", and the hand-written report with it said that I was, and I quote, "FAKING BAD, SEVERE READING DIFFICULTIES". Would they like to talk to my schoolteachers? Probably not, because they'd be caught lying.

I'm furious with them over cheating me out of an accurate evaluation.

It's not fair to me. I get some treatment that's not specific for my issues then, not even the correct medication.

Let me tell everyone now: If you need Mental Health Care, DO NOT COME TO KENTUCKY. They will mess you up.

HEY! That's the same reason I haven't told my doctor yet too. One of the reasons. I didn't and still don't want to admit it to myself that this is going on, and also I don't want to be put back in that hospital. My doc is strict. If you are suicidal in any way, he throws you away in there. If you tell him you've been experiencing psychosis, he throws you away in there. If you're in the middle of an episode when you're in his presence, he throws you away in there.

One more thing about my reading - until I was put on Risperdal back 15 years ago, I couldn't read very well at all. But that med helped me to focus and concentrate better, and without voices. Made a huge difference. But now he's got me on Abilify, which is crap. I'll request Invega when I see him this month. I've been on that before and it works. Risperdal gave me gynecomastia.

So a delusion is a "false belief", right? I wasn't sure until now. To me, it's not a false belief at all. Especially these synchronicities I've been experiencing. No one can talk me out of that. TOO coincidental to be a coincidence. I know it's Mikael.  He's been watching over me since he first made a visit to me. He's left me 2 feathers in strange places. The day I found them, I watched a video on YouTube, and lo and behold, it spoke about finding feathers in strange places meaning that an angel has visited you.

He sends me messages through numbers, other coincidences (like finding pink flamingos everywhere, and know I've found out that that is my spirit guide / spirit animal. There has also been the nudge to study the Power of Intention, Law of Attraction, and hmm there was something else but I forgot. Anyway, he talks through the t.v. and he also CLEAR AS DAY, spoke about my other 'guy', Robert. The name Mikael was also the names of one of my people. I have one more person that I wait for him to speak of.

OH now I remember. Humility and Confidence. Humble Confidence. (They spoke through the TV about this too.)  To be this way. To not be arrogant and self-righteous, and I believe people see me as. But I know I'm not like what they think of me. So that's what matters. Mikael knows too.

It does help, thank you for talking with me. I'm learning from you. :)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
5 hours ago, Jamark8 said:

Ahh! I may want to print this out then, so I can have all the details at hand. Most the time I go in there and forget what I wanted to talk about with him because the wait is usually 3-4 hours. Outrageous. He's just took on too many patients.

I had one doctor, Zussman, who tried to describe what I had, and did mention schizophrenia, but didn't say what type or anything. I am guessing there's more than one type because I've heard people refer to them differently. When I try to read about them, though sometimes, I can't grasp the point. I read the words but the understanding of it just don't happen in my mind. I had heard of delusions before. But I didn't know it was a part of psychosis.

My counselor who I've had for 20 years, all along now, has beat it into my head that I'm not schizophrenic in any way shape or form, and compares me to some other "schizophrenics" that she knows, of whom when she described what its' like for them, theirs sounds more like taking bad drugs and 'trippin' or something like that. But oh... she puts me "in my place" when I even say the word. Obviously mental health "professionals" in Kentucky need to go back to school. I was cheated out of taking a sincere, REAL psychiatric evaluation. The nurses and "doctors" and counselors up in the psych hospital told me that when I was to take the huge questionnaire, to ONLY FILL OUT HALF THE PAGE, AND LEAVE THE REST BLANK. I thought that was strange, but I did as I was told. My results came out, making me look like a total fake and "wannabe".

Something like DID, with another disorder that has nothing to do with mental health but for my privacy I won't list it, and "BPD tendencies", and the hand-written report with it said that I was, and I quote, "FAKING BAD, SEVERE READING DIFFICULTIES". Would they like to talk to my schoolteachers? Probably not, because they'd be caught lying.

I'm furious with them over cheating me out of an accurate evaluation.

It's not fair to me. I get some treatment that's not specific for my issues then, not even the correct medication.

Let me tell everyone now: If you need Mental Health Care, DO NOT COME TO KENTUCKY. They will mess you up.

HEY! That's the same reason I haven't told my doctor yet too. One of the reasons. I didn't and still don't want to admit it to myself that this is going on, and also I don't want to be put back in that hospital. My doc is strict. If you are suicidal in any way, he throws you away in there. If you tell him you've been experiencing psychosis, he throws you away in there. If you're in the middle of an episode when you're in his presence, he throws you away in there.

One more thing about my reading - until I was put on Risperdal back 15 years ago, I couldn't read very well at all. But that med helped me to focus and concentrate better, and without voices. Made a huge difference. But now he's got me on Abilify, which is crap. I'll request Invega when I see him this month. I've been on that before and it works. Risperdal gave me gynecomastia.

So a delusion is a "false belief", right? I wasn't sure until now. To me, it's not a false belief at all. Especially these synchronicities I've been experiencing. No one can talk me out of that. TOO coincidental to be a coincidence. I know it's Mikael.  He's been watching over me since he first made a visit to me. He's left me 2 feathers in strange places. The day I found them, I watched a video on YouTube, and lo and behold, it spoke about finding feathers in strange places meaning that an angel has visited you.

He sends me messages through numbers, other coincidences (like finding pink flamingos everywhere, and know I've found out that that is my spirit guide / spirit animal. There has also been the nudge to study the Power of Intention, Law of Attraction, and hmm there was something else but I forgot. Anyway, he talks through the t.v. and he also CLEAR AS DAY, spoke about my other 'guy', Robert. The name Mikael was also the names of one of my people. I have one more person that I wait for him to speak of.

OH now I remember. Humility and Confidence. Humble Confidence. (They spoke through the TV about this too.)  To be this way. To not be arrogant and self-righteous, and I believe people see me as. But I know I'm not like what they think of me. So that's what matters. Mikael knows too.

It does help, thank you for talking with me. I'm learning from you. 🙂

Glad to be of help, if you have any more questions, you can ask on this thread or message me.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
3 minutes ago, JudeAllen1803 said:

Glad to be of help, if you have any more questions, you can ask on this thread or message me.

Thank you, I appreciate you being here to help. You have been kind to me. Thanks again. I hope others that question this stuff too can come here and understand it better as well. You explained things in a way it was easier to understand. 🙂

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
17 minutes ago, Jamark8 said:

Thank you, I appreciate you being here to help. You have been kind to me. Thanks again. I hope others that question this stuff too can come here and understand it better as well. You explained things in a way it was easier to understand. 🙂

Helping people understand things, and me learning about them is kinda what I live for so I'm glad to help. It makes me feel useful so I don't have to feel like a waste of space, I'm used to explaining some extremely complicated and foreign things to people who have no clue normally what I'd be talking about (like explaining German to my mother who only speaks English), so I'm glad to know that it's working and could be of use. Thank you for listening to me, and asking for help instead of doing something that could've been bad on your own.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
Sign in to follow this  

×
×
  • Create New...