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  1. Happy Thanksgiving! Thanksgiving Day, annual national holiday in the United States and Canada celebrating the harvest and other blessings of the past year. Americans generally believe that their Thanksgiving is modeled on a 1621 harvest feast shared by the English colonists (Pilgrims) of Plymouth and the Wampanoag people. The American holiday is particularly rich in legend and symbolism, and the traditional fare of the Thanksgiving meal typically includes turkey, bread stuffing, potatoes, cranberries, and pumpkin pie. With respect to vehicular travel, the holiday is often the busiest of the year, as family members gather with one another.
  2. Zoloft: 7 things you should know Medically reviewed by C. Fookes, BPharm Last updated on Oct 3, 2019. 1. How it works Zoloft is a brand (trade) name for sertraline. Sertraline is a medicine that may be used in the treatment of depression and other mood disorders. Experts believe sertraline's effects are due to its ability to rebalance chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin, that appear imbalanced in people with anxiety, depression, and other disorders. Its activity against other neurotransmitters is much less potent than other antidepressants. Zoloft belongs to a group of medicines called Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs are thought to work by preventing the reuptake of serotonin by nerves, leading to an increase in serotonin concentrations within the nerve synapse (space between two nerves). 2. Upsides Zoloft may be used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe depression (Major Depressive Disorder). May reduce feelings of anxiety in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, or social or generalized anxiety disorder. Also approved to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relieving symptoms such as avoidance and intrusion. May improve mood associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Zoloft is available as a generic under the name sertraline. 3. Downsides If you are between the ages of 18 and 60, take no other medication or have no other medical conditions, side effects you are more likely to experience include: A headache, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction. May cause drowsiness, but not as likely as with some other antidepressants; however, caution should still be used when driving or operating machinery until full effects of the drug are known. May increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in young adults (similar to other antidepressants). Interaction or overdosage may cause serotonin syndrome (symptoms include agitation, hallucinations, fast heart rate, dizziness, muscle tremor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). May cause a discontinuation syndrome if abruptly stopped or interrupted (symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, sweating, tremors, vivid dreams, insomnia). Investigate any unexplained bone pain, tenderness, swelling or bruising since bone fragility fractures have been associated with antidepressant treatment. May increase the risk of bleeding, especially if used with other drugs that also increase bleeding risk (such as other antidepressants, tramadol, or St John's Wort). May precipitate a manic episode in people with undiagnosed bipolar disorder. May cause lowering of total body sodium (called hyponatremia); elderly people or people taking diuretics or already dehydrated may be more at risk. Rarely causes seizures. Notes: In general, seniors or children, people with certain medical conditions (such as liver or kidney problems, heart disease, diabetes, seizures) or people who take other medications are more at risk of developing a wider range of side effects. For a complete list of all side effects, click here. 4. Bottom Line Zoloft is an effective antidepressant with less potential for drowsiness than many other antidepressants. 5. Tips Administer once daily either morning or evening. If Zoloft makes you drowsy, take it at bedtime. May be taken with or without food; however, this needs to be consistent. Talk to your doctor if your mood worsens or you experience any suicidal thoughts particularly during the first few months of therapy. Seek urgent medical advice if symptoms consistent with serotonin syndrome (such as agitation, hallucinations, fast heart rate, dizziness, flushing, nausea, diarrhea) develop. Do not stop suddenly as withdrawal symptoms may occur. When the time comes to discontinue Zoloft, your doctor will advise you how to taper the dose down. Report any problems with bleeding or bruising to your doctor, also report any unexplained skin changes (such as blisters or rashes), problems with urination, eye pain or swelling and vision changes to your doctor. Dilute Zoloft oral concentrate immediately before use with either water, ginger ale, lemon/lime soda, lemonade, or orange juice. Take immediately after mixing. For people who are allergic to latex, note that the Zoloft oral concentrate dropper dispenser contains latex. 6. Response and Effectiveness Peak effects are seen within 4.5 to 8 hours. Some reduction in symptoms of depression or anxiety may be seen within the first week of taking Zoloft; however, it may take up to six weeks for the full effects of Zoloft are seen. 7. Interactions Medicines that interact with Zoloft may either decrease its effect, affect how long it works for, increase side effects, or have less of an effect when taken with Zoloft. An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of the medications; however, sometimes it does. Speak to your doctor about how drug interactions should be managed. Common medications that may interact with Zoloft include: anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin, or other drugs that have blood thinning effects such as aspirin or NSAIDs anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, or primidone antipsychotics (such as butyrophenones, phenothiazines, or thioxanthenes) and atypical antipsychotics (eg, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone) any medication that may cause drowsiness, such as benzodiazepines (eg, diazepam, lorazepam), first-generation antihistamines (such as doxylamine or promethazine), metoclopramide, or opioids (such as codeine, morphine) bupropion diuretics, such as furosemide lithium medications that may affect the heartbeat by prolonging the QT interval, such as amiodarone, encainide, flecainide, or pimozide other antidepressants, such as tricyclic antidepressants (eg, amitriptyline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (eg, isocarboxazid, phenelzine, and tranylcypromine), venlafaxine, and SSRIs (eg, paroxetine, sertraline) other medications that affect serotonin, such as amphetamines, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, triptans (eg, almotriptan, eletriptan, or sumatriptan), or St. John's Wort other medications that are metabolized by the same enzymes such as cimetidine, most antipsychotics, flecainide, propafenone, or vinblastine others, such as HIV medications (fosamprenavir, ritonavir), or procyclidine. Avoid drinking alcohol or taking illegal or recreational drugs while taking Zoloft. Note that this list is not all-inclusive and includes only common medications that may interact with Zoloft. You should refer to the prescribing information for Zoloft for a complete list of interactions. References Zoloft (sertraline hydrochloride) [Package Insert]. Revised 09/2019. Roerig https://www.drugs.com/pro/zoloft.html Further information Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use Zoloft only for the indication prescribed. Copyright 1996-2019 Drugs.com. Revision date: October 2, 2019. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Medical Disclaimer
  3. Today is World Mental Health Day, and National Depression Screening Day Mental health home Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 mhGAP Evidence and research Policy and services Maternal and child mental health Neurology and public health Mental disorders Suicide prevention Mental health in emergencies Mental health publications Media centre Mental disorders Mental disorders comprise a broad range of problems, with different symptoms. However, they are generally characterized by some combination of abnormal thoughts, emotions, behaviour and relationships with others. Examples are schizophrenia, depression, intellectual disabilities and disorders due to drug abuse. Most of these disorders can be successfully treated.
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    Mailing List ADHD AWARENESS MONTH MYTH: ADHD doesn’t exist FACT: There are more than 100,000 articles in science journals on ADHD (and its precursor labels) and references to it in medical textbooks going back to 1775. Adapted from the full length article by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center FACT: There are more than 100,000 articles in science journals on ADHD (and its precursor labels) and references to it in medical textbooks going back to 1775. Adapted from the full length article by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center We periodically hear that ADHD is a myth. Nothing could be further from the truth. There are more than 100,000 articles in science journals on ADHD (and its precursor labels) and references to it appear in medical textbooks going back to 1775. Jerome Wakefield, Ph.D. defined explicit criteria for judging mental disorders more than 20 years ago. Real disorders: consist of a failure or serious deficiency in the functioning of a mental ability and this failure or deficiency is producing harm to the individual. We can show that ADHD meets both these standards. First: there is overwhelming evidence ADHD involves a serious deficiency in both attention (poor sustained attention and distractibility) and behavioral inhibition (impulsivity and hyperactivity). These symptoms of ADHD actually reflect an underlying problem in the development of executive functioning (EF). The prefrontal lobe network, or executive brain, provides executive mental abilities necessary for goal-directed, future-oriented action: self-awareness, inhibition, working memory, emotional self-regulation, self-motivation, and planning/problem-solving. These mental abilities give us self-regulation, and ADHD symptoms arise from deficiencies in them. Whether you think ADHD is a disorder of EF or see ADHD as a disorder of inattention and inhibition, the evidence supports a failure or serious deficiency in the functioning of a set of mental mechanisms. Criterion number 1 has been met. Is ADHD associated with harm to the individual? Harm refers to an increased risk of mortality (death), morbidity (injury), personal suffering (a markedly reduced quality of life), or impairment in major domains of life activities essential to our survival and welfare. ADHD is linked to a nearly doubled risk of early mortality before age 10, and more than 4 times the risk of early death in adults before age 45. People with ADHD have 3-5 times the risk for accidental injury, and a higher risk for repeated injuries, visitation to the hospital emergency room, and hospitalization. Abundant research shows people with ADHD function ineffectively in myriad major life activities that result in impairment and adverse consequences. There are few outpatient mental disorders more severely impairing, impairing to more people, and across more domains of major life activities than ADHD. As you can see, ADHD handily meets both standards for being a valid mental disorder. Thus ADHD is real. Sometimes critics claim ADHD cannot be real because there is no objective laboratory test for the disorder. The absence of a test hardly means the absence of a disorder. Disorders are primarily discovered first by describing the symptoms that are believed to comprise that condition and showing they cluster together routinely. Then scientists search for the causes that contribute to those symptoms. Only then, years or even decades later, when evidence is well established is clinical science able to discover some objective means of routinely testing for it. https://www.adhdawarenessmonth.org/wp-content/uploads/ADHD-is-Real-Shortened-Version.pdf ABOUT THE AUTHOR Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. is a clinical scientist, educator, and practitioner who has published 23 books, rating scales, more than 290 scientific articles and book chapters related to the nature, assessment, and treatment of ADHD and related disorders, and clinical manuals numbering 41 editions. He is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the Virginia Treatment Center for Children and Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA. His websites are www.russellbarkley.org and ADHDLectures.com. REFERENCES Barkley, R. A. (2015). Health problems and related impairments in children and adults with ADHD. In R. A. Barkley (ed.) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (4thEd)(pp. 267-313). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Barkley, R. A. (2015b). Educational, occupational, dating and marriage, and financial impairments in adults with ADHD. In R. A. Barkley (ed.) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (4th Ed)(pp. 314-342). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Barkley, R. A. & Fischer, M. (2019). Hyperactive child syndrome and estimated life expectancy by young adult follow-up: The role of ADHD persistence and other potential predictors. Journal of Attention Disorder, 23(9), 907-923. Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guilford Press. Dalsgaard, S., Ostergaard, S. D., Leckman, J. F., Mortensen, P. B., & Pedersen, M. G. (2015). Mortality in children, adolescents and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide cohort study. Lancet, 385, 2190-2196. Faraone, S. C., Asherson, P., Banaschewski, T., Biederman, J., Buitelaar, J. K., Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. et al. (2015). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nature Reviews (Disease Primers), 1, 1-23. Frazier, T. W., Demareem H. A., & Youngstrom, E. A. (2004). Meta-analysis of intellectual and neuropsychological test performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology, 18, 543-555. Hervey, A. S., Epstein, J. N., & Curry, J. F. (2004). Neuropsychology of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology, 18, 495-503. London, A. S., & Landes, S. D. (2016). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adult mortality. Preventive Medicine, 90, 8-10. Nigg, J. T. (2013). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 215-228. Wakefield, J. C. (1999). Evolutionary versus prototype analyses of the concept of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 374-399.
  5. Hello Morgan, You are such a courageous young woman and I see such amazing strength in you. I believe with much support you can get through your pregnancy, to focus on! Realizing this sweet beautiful baby boy, whom you already love, who would be such a wonderful companion for you, his Mum Starting a Blog here on Depression Forums after five posts would help to you greatly, I believe. Like my wonderful Members above have noted, you are articulate, amazing, determined, and strong and your peers are here for you. You are going to get through this! -Lindsay, Forum Admin Founder
  6. World Suicide Prevention Day
  7. World Suicide Prevention Day
  8. Hello, There are many that can tolerate 0.5 mg easily and stop it on a dime with no problem and others that become dependent on it. Your Mileage May Vary, (YMMV). Everyone is so different as you can see above. I can take it or leave it. It's been 15 years on and off. Best of luck to you, -Lindsay
  9. The Fourth Of July The Fourth of July – also known as Independence Day or July 4th – has been a federal holiday in the United States since 1941, but the tradition of Independence Day celebrations goes back to the 18th century and the American Revolution. On July 2nd, 1776, the Continental Congress voted in favor of independence, and two days later delegates from the 13 colonies adopted the Declaration of Independence, a historic document drafted by Thomas Jefferson. From 1776 to the present day, July 4th has been celebrated as the birth of American independence, with festivities ranging from fireworks, parades and concerts to more casual family gatherings and barbecues. A History of Independence Day When the initial battles in the Revolutionary War broke out in April 1775, few colonists desired complete independence from Great Britain, and those who did were considered radical. By the middle of the following year, however, many more colonists had come to favor independence, thanks to growing hostility against Britain and the spread of revolutionary sentiments such as those expressed in the bestselling pamphlet “Common Sense,” published by Thomas Paine in early 1776. On June 7, when the Continental Congress met at the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, the Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee introduced a motion calling for the colonies’ independence. Amid heated debate, Congress postponed the vote on Lee’s resolution, but appointed a five-man committee – including Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and Robert R. Livingston of New York – to draft a formal statement justifying the break with Great Britain. Did you know? John Adams believed that July 2nd was the correct date on which to celebrate the birth of American independence, and would reportedly turn down invitations to appear at July 4th events in protest. Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on July 4, 1826—the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. On July 2nd, the Continental Congress voted in favor of Lee’s resolution for independence in a near-unanimous vote (the New York delegation abstained, but later voted affirmatively). On that day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail that July 2 “will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival” and that the celebration should include “Pomp and Parade…Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other.” On July 4th, the Continental Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence, which had been written largely by Jefferson. Though the vote for actual independence took place on July 2nd, from then on the 4th became the day that was celebrated as the birth of American independence. Early Fourth of July Celebrations In the pre-Revolutionary years, colonists had held annual celebrations of the king’s birthday, which traditionally included the ringing of bells, bonfires, processions and speechmaking. By contrast, during the summer of 1776 some colonists celebrated the birth of independence by holding mock funerals for King George III, as a way of symbolizing the end of the monarchy’s hold on America and the triumph of liberty. Festivities including concerts, bonfires, parades and the firing of cannons and muskets usually accompanied the first public readings of the Declaration of Independence, beginning immediately after its adoption. Philadelphia held the first annual commemoration of independence on July 4, 1777, while Congress was still occupied with the ongoing war. George Washington issued double rations of rum to all his soldiers to mark the anniversary of independence in 1778, and in 1781, several months before the key American victory at Yorktown, Massachusetts became the first state to make July 4th an official state holiday. After the Revolutionary War, Americans continued to commemorate Independence Day every year, in celebrations that allowed the new nation’s emerging political leaders to address citizens and create a feeling of unity. By the last decade of the 18th century, the two major political parties – the Federalist Party and Democratic-Republicans – that had arisen began holding separate Fourth of July celebrations in many large cities. Fourth of July Becomes a Federal Holiday The tradition of patriotic celebration became even more widespread after the War of 1812, in which the United States again faced Great Britain. In 1870, the U.S. Congress made July 4th a federal holiday; in 1941, the provision was expanded to grant a paid holiday to all federal employees. Over the years, the political importance of the holiday would decline, but Independence Day remained an important national holiday and a symbol of patriotism. Falling in mid-summer, the Fourth of July has since the late 19th century become a major focus of leisure activities and a common occasion for family get-togethers, often involving fireworks and outdoor barbecues. The most common symbol of the holiday is the American flag, and a common musical accompaniment is “The Star-Spangled Banner,” the national anthem of the United States. PHOTO GALLERIES July 4th 3
  10. Welcome @Tommy1989! You are doing just fine! Take care of yourself. ~Lindsay, Forum Admin
  11. Don’t worry about your child’s everyday stress. (Marc Boutavant/for The Washington Post) By Jennifer Breheny Wallace April 23 With reports of adolescent stress reaching epidemic proportions, concerned parents are left searching for ways to prevent or minimize pressure. But a growing number of psychologists are pushing back against the modern view that stress is wholly unwanted and unhealthy. While chronic or traumatic stress can be damaging, psychologists say normal, everyday stress — in the right dose and viewed through the right lens — can be helpful, pushing adolescents to grow beyond their limits and setting them up to thrive. Ask any great performer on the field or stage, and they’ll tell you a healthy dose of stress is key to reaching peak performance — but too much of it can make you choke. Researchers say it’s often how a person interprets a high-pressure situation, rather than the load itself, that influences how they experience stress. Your child's everyday stress may be helping after all. [Teen suicides are on the rise. Here’s what parents can do to slow the trend.] Healthy stress is motivating, focuses attention, and primes our minds and bodies to face new challenges, be it taking a test, speaking in front of an audience or standing up to a bully at school. Stress turns unhealthy when it feels bigger than our ability to cope with it, fills our minds with worries and hijacks important cognitive resources that could be better spent mastering the challenge at hand. “Anything that asks us to work at the edge of our current capacity is stressful, but that’s how we learn and grow,” says child psychologist Lisa Damour, author of “Under Pressure: Confronting the Epidemic of Stress and Anxiety in Girls.” “It’s easy for kids and adults to fall into the assumption that if it doesn’t feel good, it’s bad for you,” she says. “But as anyone who has exercised knows, that’s not true. Stress, even healthy stress, doesn’t feel good in the same way that lifting weights doesn’t usually feel good.” Parents need to be at ease with the idea that their child will be uncomfortable, and that it doesn’t necessarily mean something is wrong. In fact, a growing body of research finds that how students view their stress — as helpful or harmful — can influence their academic performance. In a study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers set out to explore whether a 10-minute stress-reducing exercise performed before an exam could help students improve their scores, especially those from ­lower-income backgrounds who have been found to have particularly high levels of stress and anxiety regarding tests. Researchers studied nearly 1,200 freshmen at a large, diverse high school in the Midwest. Before their midyear and final biology exams, one group of students was given a “writing intervention” and asked to spend 10 minutes writing about their worries about the coming test. (Previous research has shown that writing about one’s anxieties helps to diminish their intensity and frees up cognitive resources.) Another group was given a “reappraisal intervention,” where they were taught how to reinterpret their anxiety as a beneficial, energizing force. (Past studies have found that re-framing stress to a more positive view boosts performance.) A third group of students was taught both interventions, while a control group was asked to simply ignore their stress. The researchers found that using one of the three interventions (writing, reappraisal or both) helped anxious students better regulate their stress and significantly improved their test scores. Study co-author Sian Beilock, president of Barnard College, says that, at home, parents can help adolescents reinterpret signs of stress in positive ways. For example, your pounding heart is not a sign that you’re about to fall on your face, but a way of delivering blood to your brain to help you better focus. Humans are “limited capacity systems,” she says, meaning we can’t really do two things well at once. By reappraising your stress and focusing on the positive, rather than spending energy ruminating on the negative, you’re able to free up the cognitive resources needed to meet the challenge. A powerful thing a parent can do to help a student diminish unhealthy stress is to keep things proportional — talk about what is being asked of them in proportion to what it actually means, Damour says. She says it’s helpful to be explicit about putting tests into context by saying, “This test is a measure of how well you know this material today, not how well you’ll do in the future, not how much your teacher likes you or how much you like her, and not how much you are loved by us.” To help an adolescent distinguish between helpful and harmful stress, Damour says, ask your teen to visualize life events in three buckets: things that I like, things that are a crisis and all the other things in between — these are the things they can handle. For example, if a child is having four quizzes in one week, that’s a moment a parent can say: “I understand why you don’t like this. It’s uncomfortable, but it’s not a crisis,” Damour says. “This falls into the category of being something you can handle, and I’m here to help you handle it.” At its best, stress not only energizes us to hit challenging goals, but it can build up a store of psychological resilience that can be accessed to meet future challenges. Adolescents can build up a tolerance to stress, what researchers call stress inoculation, the way marathon runners build up their endurance: by gradually pushing themselves beyond comfortable limits, Damour says. Think of it as the difference between bringing home your first and second child. “You’ve already been stressed in this way, built up this muscle, so the second child doesn’t overwhelm you the same way,” she says. The next time your adolescent comes home complaining about the stress she’s under, listen, validate her concerns, and then offer a more positive, adaptive view. Help her see that stress isn’t the enemy. In fact, it may be one of our most undervalued natural resources, one worth preserving to help us grow, rise to the challenges that lie ahead and push us to reach our full potential.
  12. I love, love, love this topic members!!!! Thank you! ~Lindsay
  13. Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of January. It celebrates the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr., an influential American civil rights leader. He is most well-known for his campaigns to end racial segregation on public transport and for racial equality in the United States.Is Martin Luther King Jr. Day a Public Holiday? Martin Luther King Jr. Day is a public holiday. It is a day off for the general population, and schools and most businesses are closed. "The Stone Of Hope" memorial by master sculptor Lei Yixin was opened to the public in West Potomac Park, Washington DC, on August 22, 2011. What Do People Do? Martin Luther King Day is a relatively new federal holiday and there are few long standing traditions. It is seen as a day to promote equal rights for all Americans, regardless of their background. Some educational establishments mark the day by teaching their pupils or students about the work of Martin Luther King and the struggle against racial segregation and racism. In recent years, federal legislation has encouraged Americans to give some of their time on this day as volunteers in citizen action groups. Martin Luther King Day, also known as Martin Luther King’s birthday and Martin Luther King Jr Day, is combined with other days in different states. For example, it is combined with Civil Rights Day in Arizona and New Hampshire, while it is observed together with Human Rights Day in Idaho. It is also a day that is combined with Robert E. Lee’s birthday in some states. The day is known as Wyoming Equality Day in the state of Wyoming. Public Life Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday, but has slightly different names in some states. Non-essential Government departments are closed, as are many corporations. Some schools and colleges close but others stay open and teach their students about the life and work of Martin Luther King. Small companies, such as grocery stores and restaurants tend to be open, although a growing number are choosing to close on this day. Some compensate by opening on Washington's Birthday instead. Recent federal legislation encourages Americans to give some of their time on Martin Luther King Day as volunteers in citizen action groups. Public transit systems may or may not operate on their regular schedule. Background Martin Luther King was an important civil rights activist. He was a leader in the movement to end racial segregation in the United States. His most famous address was the "I Have A Dream" speech. He was an advocate of non-violent protest and became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was assassinated in 1968. In 1968, shortly after Martin Luther King died, a campaign was started for his birthday to become a holiday to honor him. After the first bill was introduced, trade unions lead the campaign for the federal holiday. It was endorsed in 1976. Following support from the musician Stevie Wonder with his single "Happy Birthday" and a petition with six million signatures, the bill became law in 1983. Martin Luther King Day was first observed in 1986, although it was not observed in all states until the year 2000. In 1990, the Wyoming legislature designated Martin Luther King Jr/Wyoming Equality Day as a legal holiday. https://www.voanews.com/a/4749989.html Martin Luther King's I have a dream speech August 28 1963 I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself in exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an shameful condition. In a sense we've come to our nation's Capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check; a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check- a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children. It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our chlidren are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "for whites only." We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, that one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exhalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith that I will go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning, "My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrims' pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring." And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that; let freedom ring from the Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!" -MLK
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