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Published By  Lindsay

What Is Bipolar Disorder?

Terence A. Ketter, MD
Bipolar Disorders Clinic, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

Diagnostic Features of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder shares symptoms of depression with unipolar depressive disorder, but is defined by episodes of mania or hypomania. Depression can include affective symptoms such as a pervasive sadness (depressed mood), a lack of pleasure or interest in activities (anhedonia/apathy), and irritability (in pediatric patients); cognitive symptoms such as decreased self-esteem and concentration, indecisiveness, feelings of guilt, and suicidal thoughts; and physical symptoms such as psychomotor retardation or agitation and either an increase or decrease in sleep, appetite, or energy.


Published By  Forum Admin

Bipolar disorder is a leading cause of disability worldwide,1 and the lifetime prevalence of this condition is about 1% in community populations.2 This activity presents highlights from 4 presentations given at the 2011 International Conference on Bipolar Disorder (ICBD), a conference dedicated to sharing research results and clinical experience to help clinicians improve the lives of those with bipolar disorder.


Published By  Lindsay

Evidence-Based Treatment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

In the past few years, we’ve seen a growing body of scientific evidence that supports the efficacy of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics to treat young patients with bipolar disorder. Lithium, olanzapine, aripiprazole, and risperidone monotherapy are FDA-approved for manic or mixed states in pediatric patients, while quetiapine is approved as monotherapy or as an adjunct to lithium or divalproex for manic states.


Published By  Lindsay

Efficacy of Agents in Treating Mania


Guidelines for Treating Manic Episodes

When the American Psychiatric Association (APA) last revised their guidelines for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder in 2002,1 the recommended first-line treatment for more severe manic or mixed states was a combination of lithium or valproate and an atypical antipsychotic.


Published By  Lindsay
A Review of Psychotherapeutic Approaches

The concept of treatment resistance in bipolar disorder is clinically familiar but lacks a standard definition.1


Published By  Lindsay

Sleep quality may play a role in the course of bipolar disorder, with shorter total sleep time (TST) and increased sleep variability (SV) both associated with symptom severity, conclude a team of US researchers.

Previous studies have indicated that bipolar disorder patients have a reduced need for sleep during manic episodes, and either insomnia or hypersomnia during depressive episodes. Furthermore, 70% of euthymic patients have clinically significant levels of sleep disturbance.



  • Bipolar FAQ's
    Bipolar aka Manic Depressive
  • About Bipolar
  • Goldberg Mania Scale
    Instructions: You might reproduce this scale (use the print option at the upper left had corner of this post )and use it on a weekly basis to track your moods. It also might be used to show your doctor how your symptoms have changed from one visit to the next. Changes of five or more points are significant. This scale is not designed to make a diagnosis of mania or take the place of a professional diagnosis. If you suspect that you are manic, please consult with a mental health professional as soon as possible.
  • Pediatric Bipolar

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